Operating System Introduction
Operating system commonly known as OS is the system software that manages all hardware resources and software programs for the user. OS enable user to control hardware resources. It also provides system calls (Interfaces) for programming languages to operate hardware level commands. Operating system provides platform for all application software's to run on it. Hardware cannot work without having installed OS. All application software's use OS modules for performing IO (Input/Output) operations.
Operating system is not a single software. It is a set of programs in which each program is designed to perform particular operation/task. Device drivers are important part of OS, these are used to control hardware resources and their operations.
Some notable features of operating systems are as follows.
- Providing Interface
- Memory Management
- Process Scheduling
- Resource Management
- Network Management
Interface is the communication point between two entities. Here we consider these entities as User and Machine (Computer). OS provide two types of interfaces for communication.
- GUI (Graphical User Interface)
- CLI (Command Line Interface)
Security is fundamental feature of all operating systems. It may be in the following forms.
- PIN code
3. Memory Management
Memory management is a process of managing processes in the main memory called RAM. OS normally divides the main memory into following two parts.
- Kernel Level Space
- User Level Space
4. Process Scheduling
Process is the program in running state. OS normally executing number of processes at the same time. To run all processes simultaneously OS schedule these processes for execution on processor.
5. Resource Management
Resources are hardware components that work different operations. These resources are controlled by special programs called device driver.
6. Network Management
A computer device can also share data over the networks. OS control the transmission of data over the local and remote channel.